MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 activates Fanconi Anemia R-loop suppression at transcription-replication conflicts

Emily Yun-chia Chang, James P. Wells, Shu-Huei Tsai, Yan Coulombe, Yujia A. Chan, Yi Dan Zhu, Louis-Alexandre Fournier, Philip Hieter, Jean-Yves Masson, Peter C. Stirling

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Received Date: 9th November 18

Ectopic R-loop accumulation causes DNA replication stress and genome instability. To avoid these outcomes, cells possess a range of anti-R-loop mechanisms, including RNaseH that degrades the RNA moiety in R-loops. To comprehensively identify anti-R-loop mechanisms, we performed a genome-wide trigenic interaction screen in yeast lacking RNH1 and RNH201. We identified >100 genes critical for fitness in the absence of RNaseH, which were enriched for DNA replication fork maintenance factors such as RAD50. We show in yeast and human cells that R-loops accumulate during RAD50 depletion. In human cancer cell models, we find that RAD50 and its partners in the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex regulate R-loop-associated DNA damage and replication stress. We show that a non-nucleolytic function of MRE11 is important for R-loop suppression via activation of PCNA-ubiquitination by RAD18 and recruiting anti-R-loop helicases in the Fanconi Anemia pathway. This work establishes a novel role for MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 in directing tolerance mechanisms of transcription-replication conflicts.

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This is an abstract of a preprint hosted on an independent third party site. It has not been peer reviewed but is currently under consideration at Nature Communications.

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