IFN-γ selectively suppresses a subset of TLR4-activated genes and enhancers to potentiate M1-like macrophage polarization
Kyuho Kang, Sung Ho Park, Keunsoo Kang, and Lionel B. Ivashkiv
Received Date: 26th September 2018
Complete polarization of macrophages towards an M1-like proinflammatory and antimicrobial state requires combined action of IFN-γ and LPS. Synergistic activation of canonical inflammatory NF-κB target genes by IFN-γ and LPS is well appreciated, but less is known about whether IFN-γ negatively regulates components of the LPS response, and how this affects polarization. A combined transcriptomic and epigenomic approach revealed that IFN-γ selectively abrogates LPS-induced feedback and select metabolic pathways by suppressing TLR4-mediated activation of gene enhancers. In contrast to superinduction of inflammatory genes via enhancers that harbor IRF sequences and bind STAT1, IFN-γ-mediated repression targeted enhancers with STAT sequences that bound STAT3. TLR4-activated IFN-γ-suppressed enhancers comprised two subsets distinguished by differential regulation of histone acetylation and recruitment of STAT3, CDK8 and cohesin, and were functionally inactivated by IFN-γ. These findings reveal that IFN-γ suppresses feedback inhibitory and metabolic components of the TLR response to achieve full M1 polarization, and provide insights into mechanisms by which IFN-γ selectively inhibits TLR4-induced transcription.
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This is an abstract of a preprint hosted on an independent third party site. It has not been peer reviewed but is currently under consideration at Nature Communications.