3D Deep Learning Enables Fast Imaging of Spines through Scattering Media by Temporal Focusing Microscopy

Zhun Wei, Josiah R. Boivin, Yi Xue, Xudong Chen, Peter T. C. So, Elly Nedivi, Dushan N. Wadduwage

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Received Date: 24th December 19

Today the gold standard for in vivoimaging through scattering tissue is the point-scanning two-photon microscope (PSTPM). Especially in neuroscience, PSTPM is widely used for deep-tissue imaging in the brain. However, due to sequential scanning, PSTPM is slow. Temporal focusing microscopy (TFM), on the other hand, focuses femtosecond pulsed laser light temporally, while keeping wide-field illumination, and is consequently much faster. However, due to the use of a camera detector, TFM suffers from the scattering of emission photons.  As a result, TFM produces images of poor spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), burying fluorescent signals from small structures such as dendritic spines. In this work, we present a data-driven deep learning approach to improve resolution and SNR of TFM images. Using a 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) we build a map from TFM to PSTPM modalities, to enable fast TFM imaging while maintaining high-resolution through scattering media. We demonstrate this approach for in vivoimaging of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in the mouse visual cortex. We show that our trained network rapidly outputs high-resolution images that recover biologically relevant features previously buried in the scattered fluorescence in the TFM images. In vivoimaging that combines TFM and the proposed 3D convolution neural network is one to two orders of magnitude faster than PSTPM but retains the high resolution and SNR necessary to analyze small fluorescent structures. The proposed 3D convolution deep network could also be potentially beneficial for improving the performance of many speed-demanding deep-tissue imaging applications such as in vivovoltage imaging.

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This is an abstract of a preprint hosted on an independent third party site. It has not been peer reviewed but is currently under consideration at Nature Communications.

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