Pulmonary Vesicle and Bullae Formation in Patients With COVID-19: Experiences from Wuhan

Hexiao Tang, Li Zhang, Yanhong Wei, Changsheng Li, Bo Hu, Jinping Zhao, Nahush A Mokadam, Hua Zhu, Jun Lin, Sufang Tian, Xuefeng Zhou

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Received Date: 14th April 20

BACKGROUND
The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally now. However, the clinical presentation that predict prognosis of the patients are still largely unknow.
METHODS
We enrolled 393 patients infected with COVID-19 and 30 patients with common pulmonary bulla and reviewed their clinical features to evaluate the potential prognostic value of pulmonary vesicles, especially in the patients with severe symptoms. One COVID-19 patient with vesicles was treated by bullectomy for last resort, and its characteristics of the patient’s perioperative laboratory tests was analyzed. The pathological findings of bullectomy were described and compared with those of common bulla cases.
RESULTS
Patients infected with COVID-19 showed more dependence on ventilator, occurrence of super resistant bacteria, and prone to vesicle formation than common bulla (p<0.05). Disease severity is associated with age, sex, and usage of ventilator, ECMO and antibiotics, super resistance bacteria and vesicle formation (p<0.05). The average mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was 4.10% (25.4% in severe patients, 0.00% in mild patients). Interestingly, the mortality rate further increased in severe patients with pulmonary vesicles than those without pulmonary vesicles (35.7% vs 22.4%, p=0.0442). One COVID-19 patient with vesicles underwent bullectomy and had a poor prognosis, who showed diffuse alveolar damage and extensive necrosis in bullectomy specimen.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients infected with COVID-19 are more prone to form pulmonary vesicles showed on chest CT scans, as an important poor prognosis factor, especially in the severe patients.

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